Chapters 27-28 Print
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CHAPTER XXVII


PLANNING AND CONDUCTING A MOBILE (ON FOOT) VIGILANCE
FIXED VIGILANCE AND PATROL CAR VIGILANCE

INTRODUCTION:

As a counter intelligence (CI) Special Agent (SA) you must know how to
plan and conduct a vigilance. It is probable that during your career as a SA
you will be assigned to missions to conduct a vigilance. It is your duty to
establish the personnel, time and equipment that will be needed to carry out
this mission.

GENERAL FACTS:

1. Determine the vigilance objectives:

a. The vigilance is an investigative tool that consists of
keeping a person, place or target under physical or technical observation to
obtain evidence or information pertaining to an investigation or CI
operations.

b. When more simple methods and financial expenditures have not
been successful, the vigilance is used to fulfill the specific objectives of
the investigation. The objectives of vigilance include:

(1) Establish the identity of the person involved in activities of
interest to CI.
(2) Detecting ilegal activities that fall under the jurisdiction of CI
section.
(3) Obtain information to use in an interrogation.
(4) Develop leads for future investigations.
(5) Confirm or refute information.
(6) Obtain admissible evidence in a legal manner.












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d. Detailed description of the name and addresses of associates,
contacts and relatives of the SUBJECT.

e. Professional training of the SUBJECT in the countervigilance
techniques (Figure 1).
FIGURE 1
COUNTERSURVEILLANCE
SUBJECT ACTIONS COUNTER MOVES
______________________________________________________________________
Using convoy techniques Using reserve personnel so they be
aware of the convoy techniques

Changing direction many times Constant change of watch persons
in a short time

Re-tracing a course Constant change of watch persons

Using the reflection on windows Allow quite a distance and take up
innocent actions, such as passing
the SUBJECT and entering a store

Using baits (throwing paper or Use reserve personnel to extract the
similar objects) and observe if articles an hour later
any person picks it up

Changing the pace as you walk Maintain harmony with the area and
act in a natural way

Using public transportation Maintain at least one watch person
and immediately getting off without climbing on public
transportation

Getting off public transportationMaintain the vehicle or get off and
in a deserted area walk in the opposite direction
of
the SUBJECT

Climbing up various public Using support vehicles
transportation in succession









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4. Conduct a study of the area to obtain and analyze detailed
information of the place where the vigilance took place. Consider the area
where the SUBJECT lives, works or spends time.

a. Obtain a map and take notes of:

1) Road constructions
2) Police control points
3) One-way streets
4) No outlet streets
5) Other articles of potential interest (Shopping centers,
markets, etc.)

b. Identify the nature, place, structure and type of building
that is most frequently found. Put emphasis in:

1) The residence of the SUBJECT.
2) The working place of the SUBJECT.

c. Study the population of the area to identify particular or
potential problems.

1) Race
2) Custom and cultural habits
3) Religion
4) Language
5) Reaction of the people to strangers

d. Identify the traffic pattern

1) Change of workers
2) Movement of vehicles

a) One-way streets
b) Changing directional lines
c) Congested areas
d) Zone considerations (commercial, residential or industrial)

e. Identify the public transportation systems including:

(1) Type (bus, taxi, railroad)
(2) Tolls (cash or special coupons)
(3) Timetable
(4) Loading and unloading places

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f. Review the local laws

(1) Identify the local laws and their impact in the
personnel and method regarding vigilance.

(2) Identify the application methods.

(3) Identify the local police agencies, including their
appearance.

g. Obtain the weather reports during your vigilance.

h. If possible, conduct a search of the area.

5. Prepare a vigilance plan that includes all the operational
considerations and instructions to make sure that the objective of the watch
is achieved. The plan must be detailed to avoid wrong interpretations, but it
must not be so restricted that it eliminates flexibility and the initiative of
the individual watch person.

NOTE: The vigilance plan could be formal or informal, oral or written,
depending upon the circumstances and time availability.

a. Identify the personnel requirements.

(1) Identify the number and type of persons that would be required.

(2) Select qualified personnel to participate in the vigilance. Main
qualifications include:

(a) Previous experience in conducting a vigilance.

NOTE: It is essential that a maximum number of personnel have previous
experience in conducting a vigilance, because operational and technical
methods cannot be learned completely from a book. A person without
qualification could harm the vigilance.

(b) Physical appearance that does not attract curiosity.

(c) Ability to stay without being recognized and ability to mix WITH
his surroundings or environment.





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NOTE: Select persons from the area to be used in the area where other persons
will attract attention. These other persons must be used to control and
supervise the vigilance of a place from a safe distance.

(d) Expedients (ability to adapt quickly to any situation)

(e) Physical vital strength and patience

(f) Detailed perception

(g) Retentive memory

b. Determine the requirements of the logistics and administrative
supports.

(1) Relief vigilance personnel from other duties

(2) Obtain special documents, if required

(3) Provide financing to cover the project and for contingent
financial expenses

(4) Arrange to obtain the vehicles

(5) Obtain and examine the support equipment

(6) Arrange for food and other commodities, if appropriate, for
the vigilance personnel

(7) Prepare one or more cover stories to explain each presence
and activities of the watch persons in a particular place

(8) Plan the relief for the watch crew

(9) Give them arms, if necessary

c. Determine the control and communication procedures

(1) Establish the control procedures

(a) Establish a central control point to direct the vigilance
operations

(b) Clearly tell the watch personnel what is the chain of
command from the watch man to the control point.

(2) Establish the procedures for communication.

(a) Establish radio communications, when possible, as the
foremost method of communication between the operative elements and the
control
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point.









































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NOTE: The use of the safe communication systems could be necessary in some
circumstances.

EQUIPMENT AND PROVISIONS

Radios
Cameras and accessories
Binoculars
Tape recorders
Books and pencil
Maps
Small transmitter in SUBJECT'S car
Receiver for the transmitter
Change of clothes

(b) Establish visual signals when the radios do not work or there are
no radios available.

1 Limit the number of signals and keep them simple.

2 Visual signals must be natural gestures that do not attract
attention to the watch person (Example: taking a paper from your pocket,
lighting a cigarette, etc.)

(c) Establish the procedures for emergency communication.

d. Determine the specific mission that will be assigned to each
group or individual watch person.

NOTE: The planning and preparation must consider all the possible
contingencies that could develop during the vigilance.

6. To direct the members of the team about vigilance.

NOTE: The watch team must know as much as possible about the case so that in
such way they could interpret the SUBJECT'S actions.

a. Inform the participants of the vigilance objectives.

b. Inform the participants of the type, methods and techniques
that will be used in the vigilance (Figures 3 and 4).


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c. Inform the participants of the role they will play in the
vigilance.

d. Provide the participants WITH the target information and the area.
Use photographs, maps, sketches to familiarize the participants completely
WITH the target aspects and WITH the area that will be watched.

e. Provide additional training and preliminary training in the
vigilance and counter vigilance methods.

VIGILANCE METHODS

a. A fixed vigilance is when a watch person(s) is kept in a place or
fixed position to observe the activities of an specific place.

b. A vigilance in action is when the watch person(s) follow the
SUBJECT from one place to another to keep the continuous observation of his
activities. The vigilance in action could be:

(1) A mobile vigilance (feet)

(2) A car patrol vigilance

c. A technical vigilance is when technical visual equipment,
electronic bugging equipment, and photographs are used.

d. A mixed vigilance is when there is a combination of methods
mentioned above. This method is more expensive in money terms and personnel,
but will give us the best result.

















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FIGURE 4

VIGILANCE TECHNIQUES
DISTANCE: The distance between the watch person and the SUBJECT will depend
upon the circumstances and the watch person's judgement and must vary during
the course of the vigilance. Normally, the more people there are in the street
the closer the watch person will be from the SUBJECT.

TURNING ON CORNERS: Do not make immediate turns after a SUBJECT in corners. A
suspicious SUBJECT could "examine and observe" a watch person by just standing
in the corner and observing attentively these persons that turn around the
same corner. Making a wider turn will help keep our pose and will allow us to
review the area.

CONVOY: Valuable SUBJECT(s) to a vigilance could use convoys while conducting
important activities. The convoys will keep a position in the back of the
SUBJECT, keeping him on view, and is alerted about watch persons. Be attentive
and alert about the utilization of convoys and take appropriate action to
prevent the commitment of the vigilance.

DECOYS: The SUBJECT uses a substitute of similar physical appearance so as
to act as a decoy and to confuse the watch person. This is an efficient method
when it is used in the residence or work place of the SUBJECT.

CLIMBING BUSES AND TAXIS: If the SUBJECT climbs a bus or taxi, the watch
person "A" must try to climb the bus or taxi, but always keeping a distance
behind the SUBJECT if possible.

RESTAURANT:Obtain a chair out of the direct SUBJECT'S view range, but so as
you can see the SUBJECT, if possible, in a place where you could listen to the
SUBJECT. Order according to the type of service ordered by the SUBJECT to be
sure that you can pay the bill and leave the restaurant without looking track
of the SUBJECT.

RADIOS: The use of communication equipment must be without attracting
attention to the public's curiosity. Do not bend to approach the microphone.

RECOGNIZING THE SUBJECT: The SUBJECT must be physically shown to the
watch person, if possible. Study and be prepared to recognize the appearance
and the SUBJECT'S mannerisms. Do not depend in the SUBJECT'S dress manner.


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VIGILANCE TECHNIQUES

COMING INTO A BUILDING:The size, nature and surroundings are significant
considerations to determine future actions. Small buildings, if any, could be
kept under vigilance, it is not necessary to follow the SUBJECT to this
building unless the SUBJECT made a contact WITH other persons there in the
past. In large buildings, follow the SUBJECT and use the inside of the
building to your advantage. Keep in mind that lazy persons attract attention.

ELEVATORS: Follow the SUBJECT to the elevator only if there are other persons
and if the SUBJECT does not suspect he is been observed. Stop in the floor
above or below the SUBJECT and use the stairs to get to the same floor as the
SUBJECT'S. In department stores or similar buildings, the watch person could
leave the elevator on the same floor as the SUBJECT. If the SUBJECT enters an
elevator alone, stay in the lobby and determine the direction the SUBJECT went
to by observing the floor indicator of the elevator. Use the stairs and
another elevator to reach the same floor as the SUBJECT'S.

Figure 4 (cont.)

7. Conduct the vigilance using one of the methods mentioned below:

a. The method of a watchman

NOTE: Avoid this method in a moving vigilance, if possible, because it does
not allow flexibility.

(1) Operate in behind the SUBJECT and in the same street.

(2) Operate in the street adjacent to the SUBJECT when it is
operationally necessary to avoid the commitment of the vigilance. The
circumstance will dictate if we must operate in front, behind or next to the
SUBJECT. (EXAMPLE: Operate next to the SUBJECT when he turns around the corner
to observe if he makes contact or enters into a building).

(3) Keep close to the SUBJECT to observe his actions.









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(4) If the SUBJECT turns around in a corner and the area is not too
crowded continue crossing the street in the intersection. Observe the street in
the direction of the SUBJECT, write down the position and action of the person and
act according to the situation.

(5) If the SUBJECT turns around in a corner that is crowded, stop in
the corner, in a casual manner and observe the SUBJECT'S actions. Unless the
SUBJECT is stopped in a corner, continue the vigilance in the same street.

b. The two watchmen method ("AB" method)

(1) A watchman is kept in position "A" directly behind the SUBJECT.

(2) A second watchman is kept in position "B" behind "A" or in the street
next to the SUBJECT and next to him.

(3) The distance is kept according to the situation.

(4) If both watchmen are in the same street and the SUBJECT turns around
in the corner, watchman "A" continues to walk in the original direction and
crosses the street at the intersection. From the adjacent street, watchman "A"
points out the appropriate procedures of following the SUBJECT to watchman "B".

(5) If watchman "B" is operating in the adjacent street and the SUBJECT
turns around in the same corner that he is at, watchman "B" must cross the street
behind the SUBJECT and take watchman "A"s position. It is not necessary to use
signals because this arrangement must be established beforehand.

(6) If watchman "B" is operating in the adjacent street and the SUBJECT
crosses the street in the direction of watchman "B", watchman "B" must limit his
step to avoid contact WITH the SUBJECT. Watchman "B" must enter in a store or
continue walking straight ahead, keeping visual contact WITH watchman "A" to look
for a signal indicating his next move.











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c. The three men method (The "ABC" method).

(1) A member of a group is placed in position "A" at a short distance from
the SUBJECT. Watchman "A" observes WITH detail and writes down the SUBJECT'S
actions.

(2) The second watchman is placed in position "B" behind watchman "A".
Watchman "B" keeps the constant observation of actions of both watchman "A" and
the SUBJECT and prepares to assume the position of watchman "A" when it is
required. Watchman "B" also observes to see if there are any convoys and takes
appropriate action against these convoys.

(3) The third watchman is placed in position "C" in the street adjacent
and next tQ the SUBJECT. Watchman "C" directs the actions of watchman "A" and "B"
WITH signals arranged beforehand and prepares to assume the watchman "A"s position
if the SUBJECT crosses the street and leaves watchmen "A" and "B" alone.

NOTE: If the group of watchmen have more persons, they will follow behind
watchmen "B" and "C".

(4) If the subject turns around the corner directly on the side he is
walking (out of watchman "C"), watchman "A" crosses the street in the intersection
and assumes the position of watchman "C" and watchman "B" places himself in
position "A" and watchman "C" crosses the street and places himself in position
"B".

(5) If the SUBJECT turns around the corner and crosses the street in the
direction of watchman "C", it is not necessary to change positions.

(6) If the SUBJECT simply crosses the street in which he is walking,
without turning around any place, then watchman "C" is placed in position "A", and
watchman "A" assumes the position of watchman "C" and watchman "B" crosses the
street and places himself in position "B".

NOTE: All position changes must be directed depending upon the circumstances and
the watchmen judgement and they will be done in a way so as not to attract the
attention of the population or the SUBJECT'S attention.









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d. The progressive vigilance is used when the SUBJECT has counter-
vigilance experience and it is expected that he will use any technique to avoid
the vigilance.

(1) Locate the SUBJECT'S place to start (residence, office, etc).

(2) After locating this point, start to pick up the SUBJECT from any place
outside out of his sight.

(3) Continue and observe the SUBJECT only at short distances on the first
day.

(4) In the following days, pick the SUBJECT at the time and place where
you left him the last time, and again follow him at a short distance to a new
point.

NOTE: This method will be painful and slow if the SUBJECT changes his daily
routine occasionally, but will eventually take the watch persons to the places and
contacts that the SUBJECT wants to keep secret.

8. Write down all the observations regarding the SUBJECT and his
activities. Write down in a manner that does not attract attention. The small tape
recorders are a valuable tool during vigilance. Writing notes in maps or
newspapers also works.

9. Carry out the fixed vigilance.

a. Establish an stationary position to avoid the SUBJECT'S
detection or the curiosity of other persons. Conduct the vigilance in one of these
positions:

(1) A fixed place could be used during a short term or during a stop in a
mobile vigilance.

(2) WITH a parked vehicle in the vicinity of the target.

a) Do not park in the same place for a long time.

b) Warn the police agency if the vigilance involves parking a
vehicle for a long time.









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c) Do not keep the vehicle's motor running while parked. It is very
dangerous (carbon monoxide could enter inside the car) and will attract attention.

d) Unplug the light inside the vehicle.

e) After parking the vehicle, you must open the door and close it,
many persons unconsciously listen to determine if they open and closed the
vehicle's doors right after parking.

(3) In a room or an apartment located next to the SUBJECT.

(a) This place must be one or two floors above the SUBJECT'S place.

(b) This place must be accessible to entrances that are not visible by the
SUBJECT.

(c) This place must be occupied all day to avoid the entrance of non-
authorized persons.

(d) The observer must seat in a dark room away from direct view of the
window to get the best advantage that the shade in the room offers.

(e) Limit the number of watch persons to two or three in a position,
because a larger number could attract attention.

(f) Frequently relieve the personnel to avoid fatigue.

10. Carrying out the vehicle's vigilance method:

a. The vehicle's method.

NOTE: Avoid this method in the mobile vigilance, if possible, because it does not
allow flexibility.

(1) Prepare the vehicle.

(2) Operate in the back side of the SUBJECT'S vehicle.








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(3) Maintain close to the SUBJECT to observe his actions.

(4) If the SUBJECT'S vehicle turns around in a corner follow him or
continue crossing the intersection and make a "U" turn and continue following him.
Observe the street and the direction of the SUBJECT, write down the position and
persons's action, and act according to the situation.

b. The two vehicle method ("AB" method)

(1) Prepare the vehicle.

(2) The first vehicle is kept in position "A" directly behind the
SUBJECT, while this vehicle must be kept at least two or three vehicles behind the
SUBJECT'S vehicle.

(3) The second vehicle is kept in position "B" directly behind "A"
or in the street parallel the SUBJECT'S vehicle and at his side, while receiving
directions, by radio from vehicle "A".

(4) The distance is kept according to the situation.

NOTE: It is possible to keep the vigilance through the back mirror of the watch
person's vehicle when traveling in front of the SUBJECT'S vehicle.

(5) Change positions of watch person's vehicles frequently to avoid
that the SUBJECT recognizes these vehicles.

c. The three vehicle method ("ABC" method)

(1) Prepare the vehicle

(2) In a vigilance through vehicles using the "ABC" method, the
watch person's vehicles are lined in the same manner that in "ABC" techniques for
mobile vigilance (on foot). Vehicle "C" operates in a known parallel route.

(3) If the circumstances dictate it both vehicles "B" and "C" could
operate in the SUBJECT'S parallel route. Change vehicles "B" and "C" frequently
WITH vehicle "A".






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(4) A watchman's vehicle could be placed in a position in front of
the SUBJECT'S vehicle to avoid that the SUBJECT could recognize the watchmen's
vehicles.

11. End the vigilance when:

a. The vigilance objectives have been attained.

b. The SUBJECT of a discreet vigilance knows that he is under
vigilance and takes actions that indicate that he recognizes that he has been
watched.

12. Prepare the vigilance reports using the Agent's Report. The report
must have the following information:

a. Introduction paragraph

(1) Date and time when the vigilance started and ended.

(2) Identify the person under vigilance, if he is not the SUBJECT of
the investigation.

(3) Complete identification of other agencies or person(s) that
provided assistance during the vigilance.

(4) Type of vigilance

(5) Specific place or general area involved.

b. Detailed description of the SUBJECT, including his mannerisms, and
defined habits.

c. Chronological details of events or activities in a narrative form or
tabulation, identifying each contact and building by number (For example, Contact
1); a summary of all the conversations that were heard about the SUBJECT.
Including an exact transcript, if possible.

d. Description of each contact.

e. Description of each building implied.







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f. If there is a formal report, include the date, time and reasons for
which the vigilance was discontinued.

g. The SA in charge of the vigilance team signs the report.


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CHAPTER XXVIII

TERRORISM

INTRODUCTION:

In this chapter you may describe terrorism, the phases of the conflict under
low intensity, who were the terrorists, the characteristics of the terrorist
operations, the terrorist organization, the arms used by the terrorists, the
security methods of the terrorist's groups.

GENERAL FACTS:

QUESTIONS TO BE COVERED IN THIS CHAPTER:

1. What are the phases of the low intensity conflict?

2. How is terrorism defined?

3. Who are the terrorists?

4. What are the characteristics of the terrorist's or rebel's operations?

5. How is the organization of a terrorist's movement?

6. What are the methods to provide security to a terrorist organization?

7. What arms are used by the terrorists?

8. What are some of the targets that are most attacked by terrorists?

9. What are some of the most common terrorist activities ?

10. What is the terrorist's goal?









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BASIC DATA ABOUT TERRORISM AND REBELLION

THE REBELLION OR CONFLICT PHASES OF LOW INTENSITY:

1. PHASE I: (Latent or Incipient Insurrection) This phase rotates between
the circumstances of the subversive activities is only a potential, latent or
incipient threat, and situations in which the subversive incidents and activities
occur frequently and in an organized way. This does not include a violent burst of
activity or chaotic activity.

a. EXAMPLES OF ACTIVITIES THAT COULD BE CARRIED OUT IN PHASE I:

1) The rebels starting from a relatively weak position, plan and organize
their campaign and select urban or rural areas of objectivity.

2) The open or clandestine organizations are established. If the
insurrection party is ilegal, the organizations will be clandestine.

3) Psychological operations are carried out WITH the purpose of
exploiting complaints and people's wishes.

4) Then the organization starts WITH a ghost government.

5) Once the party is established, they concentrate in gaining the
influence of the population and infiltrating in the government, economic and
social organizations, and in presenting a threat to the administrative ability of
the government.

6) During the last stage of Phase I the importance of recruiting,
organizing and training the armed elements is emphasized.

7) The police forces are attacked, other activities terrorist (groups)
and some other military operations of less importance to try to influence
additionally over the population, or to provide arms for the movement and
confronting the government's ability to keep peace and order.

2. PHASE II: (Guerrilla warfare) This phase is reached once the
subversive movement has gained sufficient local and external support and starts to
conduct an organized guerrilla warfare, or forms of violence against the
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a. EXAMPLES OF ACTIVITIES THAT COULD BE CARRIED OUT DURING PHASE
II:

1) Phase I is continued and expanded. The rebel's political and military
control is intensified over the territory and the population.

2) Guerrilla warfare is used in a great scale and in some areas a limited
defense is mounted.

3) According to what the situation allows a rebel's government is
organized in areas they dominate, and in areas that have yet to be under their
control.

4) The most important military goal is the control of the greatest area.
The rebels try to understand the government troops in static defense and
interdiction operations and they try to destroy the communications lines and take
or destroy the government's supplies and resources.

3. PHASE III: (Movement war) The situation advances from Phase II to
Phase III when the insurrection has mainly changed to a movement war between the
organized rebel's forces and the government forces.

a. EXAMPLES OF ACTIVITIES THAT COULD BE CARRIED OUT DURING PHASE
III:

1) The activities that were initiated in Phases I and II, are continued
and increased.

2) The largest units in size are used to combat the government forces and
gain key geographic and political objectives that will help overthrow the
government forces.

3) If the rebels try to win the military sector over and the government
is overthrown, immediately they will initiate their consolidation activities. This
includes removing the potential enemies, establishing additional control
mechanisms and the re-structuring of society.











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(4) Additional information and summary of the terrorist's personality: In
general, a terrorist is a determined person who thinks that he or she is
participating in a dynamic political process but that cannot distinguish the
difference between the actions and moral principles; to them the objectives
justify the tactics. The true terrorist is not a crazy fanatic as is commonly
thought. They are hard-working persons that are prepared to give their lives for
the cause. Most terrorists desire to live to see that their goals are fulfilled or
carried out; to attain that objective they use persons WITH mental problems (crazy
people) or common criminals to carry out risky missions such as murders.

b. AGE: In general the age of a terrorist is between twenty and thirty
years of age. For the local groups is even adolescents. The leaders of any type of
organization is commonly older (58, 40, 35).

c. SEX: For the most part in the terrorists' history, they have been
predominantly males. During a period of a decade (1966 to 1976), 80% of the
operations were addressed and executed by men. The role of a woman in those times
was to recount (collect) intelligence, such as messengers, nurses, and the
operation of safe houses. From that era on there was a dramatic change in the
feminine participation in the terrorist acts. At present, the greatest part of the
terrorists are still men, but WITH a great women participation. The participation
of women in terrorist movements is due in part, to social changes, female
liberation and youth's rebelliousness.

d. CIVIL STATUS: The greatest part of the terrorist organizations have a
majority of single members. The accepted general figure is between 75-80% single.
This reflects that marriage is considered as an operational problem for the group.
Frequently the members of a terrorist group that are married break up WITH their
family once they find themselves convinced in their group's beliefs and they
follow them.

e. ORIGIN: The urban metropolitan areas constitute the source of the
greatest part of the terrorist numbers.














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f. SOCIO-ECONOMIC HISTORY: Normally they come from liberal party member
parents. There is a preponderance of professionals, such as lawyers and doctors,
but the other occupations include clergy, business executives, diplomats,
government employees, police and members of the armed forces. The terrorist groups
usually come from middle and high classes.

g. EDUCATION AND OCCUPATION: There is a vast majority of students and
intellectuals within the revolutionary movements and their directors. The majority
of the leaders have received some university education or have taken higher
education courses and then some. The social and humanity degrees seem to attract
many; the students rarely come up as leaders, but the universities are a field for
the revolutionary movements.

h. RECRUITMENT: The universities play an prominent role in the
recruitment of terrorists. They introduce anarchist and marxists doctrines and
many of the student federations are controlled by radicals. The jail adds another
element, although it does not play such an important role as the university's.

i. RELIGION: The terrorist tend to be atheists, devoted to violence. This
does not mean that all terrorist are atheists. In Latin America's case, the
catholic priest's and the nuns have carried out active roles in the terrorist
operations of both sectors.























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COMPARISON BETWEEN THE TWO CATEGORIES OF TERRORISTS:

NATIONALIST IDEOLOGICAL [millennium-oriented]

Personality: Educated leader Same, preponderance of
Idealist socially unadjusted youth
Activist

Age: From adolescence In their twenties, thirties
to the 30's (leaders
in their 40's)
Sex: Masculine (a few activeDivided almost 50%
ones from the feminine sex)women have very active roles.

Civil Status: Single Single

Origin: Metropolitan area Metropolitan areas

Socio-economic Low and middle class Middle and higher classes
history: (leaders middle to high
classes)

Education and Varies greatly University and Professional
Occupation (Leaders are professionals)

Recruitment Varies greatly in cities City, University, Prisons

Religion Varies greatly None


















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TWO MAIN TERRORIST CATEGORIES: WITH the considerable changes that have taken
place during the last twenty years, there has come into play two main terrorist
categories:

a. Nationalist: They take power or cause a national revolution. The
control of specific territory is their common denominator. These groups have as
principal goal to take a territory as a sovereign entity. They have objectives
defined in a short term and frequently make do in a practical manner to attain
them.

b. Ideological: Revolutionaries and anarchists of an indefinite ideology
that try to destroy the existing system. As a general rule they try to avoid to
arouse any definite substitute government because this tends to divide the
organization through dissention.

METHODS OF OPERATION: Terrorist operations are being carried out in a
professional manner and are executed by well-trained specialized clandestine
elements, particularly by international groups. The terrorist organizations are
becoming bureaucratic institutions and their members are specializing in diverse
areas. There is evidence of one transnational affiliation and assistance between
the groups. The terrorist groups generally operate as clandestine organizations.

a. To avoid penetration and information loss about the organization,
operations, techniques and plans, groups practice strict security measures. A
leader is designated and guided about the mission and the support requirements.

b. Procuring even more security, frequently the members of the team do
not meet but until the last rehearsal and shortly before leaving towards the place
where the mission will take place. In such manner, the members of the team and the
support personnel will not know the location of the target until it is necessary
to carry out the mission. The identity of each member of the team will be kept in
secret, even from the member themselves, by using names and false identification.














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c. To increase security, a special intelligence team will carry out a
detailed search of the area or the target. To increase the security even more,
many targets that have been recognized will not be attacked by a reason or other,
so the fact that a search has taken place does not mean that the target will be
attacked. Additionally, to make the hamper or prevent the detection, they plan a
greater number of attacks than they will actually carry out.

d. Urban local groups carry out their operations as an initiative of
their local cells or their movement's central command.

e. Terrorists normally look to exploit the vulnerabilities, attacking
targets that have a weak security stand. Terrorist operations are characterized
by: "THE VIOLENCE", "SPEED", AND "SURPRISE". Terrorists reduce their own
vulnerabilities to reduce the risk of the operation. If the original target is
well protected, they take into consideration the degree of risk and vulnerability
of the group, select another target. This does not mean that terrorist groups will
not attack a high security target and risk a suicide mission if they think that
could be the last resource.

TERRORISTS TARGETS: The terrorists targets are generally of two types:
Symbolic or pragmatic. Targets that could serve both purposes are selected if they
are available. Targets are more symbolic when terrorists are weak and vulnerable.
As the movement grows, targets are more pragmatic. The definition of the two types
of targets is as follows:

a. SYMBOLIC TARGETS: Symbolic targets are normally prominent members of a
regime or an institution. The terrorist's acts against the target are committed in
highly visible places to attract the greatest degree of attention possible and
they serve as principal instrument to reduce the trust, inflict fear and provoke
the repression of the latter psychological use by the movement.

b. PRAGMATIC TARGETS: Pragmatic targets include multinational corporation
executives, key members of the opposition, whose selection has the purpose of
coercing the group's objective so as to support the movement; to obtain resources,
such as, money, supplies and arms.












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TERRORIST ACTIVITIES: The activities of the terrorist groups include:

a. Murders
b. Bombs (including the use of letters and explosive packages, and fire
bombs)
c. Kidnapping and taking hostages
d. Pre-meditated fires
e. Ambushes
f. Armed attacks
g. Street tactics
h. Robberies

ADDITIONAL INFORMATION ABOUT TERRORISM:

a. Terrorist goals:

1) Guide the masses not to support the government and support their
movement.

2) Terrorism will give the urban insurgent a method to develop the
potential for mass uprising and give the rural insurgent a method to oblige them
to reduce the control of the government and to force them into the desired
behavior.

3) These goals constitute the fundamental terrorist threat for
governments.

LOCAL LEVEL ORGANIZATIONAL CHART

COMMAND
INTELLIGENCE SUPPORT COMBAT
SECTION SECTION ELEMENTS

________________

NATIONAL LEVEL ORGANIZATIONAL CHART

COMMAND
SUB-COMMAND SUB-COMMAND SUB-COMMAND

INTELLIGENCE SUPPORT COMBAT
SECTION SECTION SECTION





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CHAPTER XXVII


PLANNING AND CONDUCTING A MOBILE (ON FOOT) VIGILANCE
FIXED VIGILANCE AND PATROL CAR VIGILANCE

INTRODUCTION:

As a counter intelligence (CI) Special Agent (SA) you must know how to
plan and conduct a vigilance. It is probable that during your career as a SA
you will be assigned to missions to conduct a vigilance. It is your duty to
establish the personnel, time and equipment that will be needed to carry out
this mission.

GENERAL FACTS:

1. Determine the vigilance objectives:

a. The vigilance is an investigative tool that consists of
keeping a person, place or target under physical or technical observation to
obtain evidence or information pertaining to an investigation or CI
operations.

b. When more simple methods and financial expenditures have not
been successful, the vigilance is used to fulfill the specific objectives of
the investigation. The objectives of vigilance include:

(1) Establish the identity of the person involved in activities of
interest to CI.
(2) Detecting ilegal activities that fall under the jurisdiction of CI
section.
(3) Obtain information to use in an interrogation.
(4) Develop leads for future investigations.
(5) Confirm or refute information.
(6) Obtain admissible evidence in a legal manner.












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[page missing]

d. Detailed description of the name and addresses of associates,
contacts and relatives of the SUBJECT.

e. Professional training of the SUBJECT in the countervigilance
techniques (Figure 1).
FIGURE 1
COUNTERSURVEILLANCE
SUBJECT ACTIONS COUNTER MOVES
______________________________________________________________________
Using convoy techniques Using reserve personnel so they be
aware of the convoy techniques

Changing direction many times Constant change of watch persons
in a short time

Re-tracing a course Constant change of watch persons

Using the reflection on windows Allow quite a distance and take up
innocent actions, such as passing
the SUBJECT and entering a store

Using baits (throwing paper or Use reserve personnel to extract the
similar objects) and observe if articles an hour later
any person picks it up

Changing the pace as you walk Maintain harmony with the area and
act in a natural way

Using public transportation Maintain at least one watch person
and immediately getting off without climbing on public
transportation

Getting off public transportationMaintain the vehicle or get off and
in a deserted area walk in the opposite direction
of
the SUBJECT

Climbing up various public Using support vehicles
transportation in succession









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4. Conduct a study of the area to obtain and analyze detailed
information of the place where the vigilance took place. Consider the area
where the SUBJECT lives, works or spends time.

a. Obtain a map and take notes of:

1) Road constructions
2) Police control points
3) One-way streets
4) No outlet streets
5) Other articles of potential interest (Shopping centers,
markets, etc.)

b. Identify the nature, place, structure and type of building
that is most frequently found. Put emphasis in:

1) The residence of the SUBJECT.
2) The working place of the SUBJECT.

c. Study the population of the area to identify particular or
potential problems.

1) Race
2) Custom and cultural habits
3) Religion
4) Language
5) Reaction of the people to strangers

d. Identify the traffic pattern

1) Change of workers
2) Movement of vehicles

a) One-way streets
b) Changing directional lines
c) Congested areas
d) Zone considerations (commercial, residential or industrial)

e. Identify the public transportation systems including:

(1) Type (bus, taxi, railroad)
(2) Tolls (cash or special coupons)
(3) Timetable
(4) Loading and unloading places

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f. Review the local laws

(1) Identify the local laws and their impact in the
personnel and method regarding vigilance.

(2) Identify the application methods.

(3) Identify the local police agencies, including their
appearance.

g. Obtain the weather reports during your vigilance.

h. If possible, conduct a search of the area.

5. Prepare a vigilance plan that includes all the operational
considerations and instructions to make sure that the objective of the watch
is achieved. The plan must be detailed to avoid wrong interpretations, but it
must not be so restricted that it eliminates flexibility and the initiative of
the individual watch person.

NOTE: The vigilance plan could be formal or informal, oral or written,
depending upon the circumstances and time availability.

a. Identify the personnel requirements.

(1) Identify the number and type of persons that would be required.

(2) Select qualified personnel to participate in the vigilance. Main
qualifications include:

(a) Previous experience in conducting a vigilance.

NOTE: It is essential that a maximum number of personnel have previous
experience in conducting a vigilance, because operational and technical
methods cannot be learned completely from a book. A person without
qualification could harm the vigilance.

(b) Physical appearance that does not attract curiosity.

(c) Ability to stay without being recognized and ability to mix WITH
his surroundings or environment.





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NOTE: Select persons from the area to be used in the area where other persons
will attract attention. These other persons must be used to control and
supervise the vigilance of a place from a safe distance.

(d) Expedients (ability to adapt quickly to any situation)

(e) Physical vital strength and patience

(f) Detailed perception

(g) Retentive memory

b. Determine the requirements of the logistics and administrative
supports.

(1) Relief vigilance personnel from other duties

(2) Obtain special documents, if required

(3) Provide financing to cover the project and for contingent
financial expenses

(4) Arrange to obtain the vehicles

(5) Obtain and examine the support equipment

(6) Arrange for food and other commodities, if appropriate, for
the vigilance personnel

(7) Prepare one or more cover stories to explain each presence
and activities of the watch persons in a particular place

(8) Plan the relief for the watch crew

(9) Give them arms, if necessary

c. Determine the control and communication procedures

(1) Establish the control procedures

(a) Establish a central control point to direct the vigilance
operations

(b) Clearly tell the watch personnel what is the chain of
command from the watch man to the control point.

(2) Establish the procedures for communication.

(a) Establish radio communications, when possible, as the
foremost method of communication between the operative elements and the
control
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point.









































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NOTE: The use of the safe communication systems could be necessary in some
circumstances.

EQUIPMENT AND PROVISIONS

Radios
Cameras and accessories
Binoculars
Tape recorders
Books and pencil
Maps
Small transmitter in SUBJECT'S car
Receiver for the transmitter
Change of clothes

(b) Establish visual signals when the radios do not work or there are
no radios available.

1 Limit the number of signals and keep them simple.

2 Visual signals must be natural gestures that do not attract
attention to the watch person (Example: taking a paper from your pocket,
lighting a cigarette, etc.)

(c) Establish the procedures for emergency communication.

d. Determine the specific mission that will be assigned to each
group or individual watch person.

NOTE: The planning and preparation must consider all the possible
contingencies that could develop during the vigilance.

6. To direct the members of the team about vigilance.

NOTE: The watch team must know as much as possible about the case so that in
such way they could interpret the SUBJECT'S actions.

a. Inform the participants of the vigilance objectives.

b. Inform the participants of the type, methods and techniques
that will be used in the vigilance (Figures 3 and 4).


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c. Inform the participants of the role they will play in the
vigilance.

d. Provide the participants WITH the target information and the area.
Use photographs, maps, sketches to familiarize the participants completely
WITH the target aspects and WITH the area that will be watched.

e. Provide additional training and preliminary training in the
vigilance and counter vigilance methods.

VIGILANCE METHODS

a. A fixed vigilance is when a watch person(s) is kept in a place or
fixed position to observe the activities of an specific place.

b. A vigilance in action is when the watch person(s) follow the
SUBJECT from one place to another to keep the continuous observation of his
activities. The vigilance in action could be:

(1) A mobile vigilance (feet)

(2) A car patrol vigilance

c. A technical vigilance is when technical visual equipment,
electronic bugging equipment, and photographs are used.

d. A mixed vigilance is when there is a combination of methods
mentioned above. This method is more expensive in money terms and personnel,
but will give us the best result.

















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FIGURE 4

VIGILANCE TECHNIQUES
DISTANCE: The distance between the watch person and the SUBJECT will depend
upon the circumstances and the watch person's judgement and must vary during
the course of the vigilance. Normally, the more people there are in the street
the closer the watch person will be from the SUBJECT.

TURNING ON CORNERS: Do not make immediate turns after a SUBJECT in corners. A
suspicious SUBJECT could "examine and observe" a watch person by just standing
in the corner and observing attentively these persons that turn around the
same corner. Making a wider turn will help keep our pose and will allow us to
review the area.

CONVOY: Valuable SUBJECT(s) to a vigilance could use convoys while conducting
important activities. The convoys will keep a position in the back of the
SUBJECT, keeping him on view, and is alerted about watch persons. Be attentive
and alert about the utilization of convoys and take appropriate action to
prevent the commitment of the vigilance.

DECOYS: The SUBJECT uses a substitute of similar physical appearance so as
to act as a decoy and to confuse the watch person. This is an efficient method
when it is used in the residence or work place of the SUBJECT.

CLIMBING BUSES AND TAXIS: If the SUBJECT climbs a bus or taxi, the watch
person "A" must try to climb the bus or taxi, but always keeping a distance
behind the SUBJECT if possible.

RESTAURANT:Obtain a chair out of the direct SUBJECT'S view range, but so as
you can see the SUBJECT, if possible, in a place where you could listen to the
SUBJECT. Order according to the type of service ordered by the SUBJECT to be
sure that you can pay the bill and leave the restaurant without looking track
of the SUBJECT.

RADIOS: The use of communication equipment must be without attracting
attention to the public's curiosity. Do not bend to approach the microphone.

RECOGNIZING THE SUBJECT: The SUBJECT must be physically shown to the
watch person, if possible. Study and be prepared to recognize the appearance
and the SUBJECT'S mannerisms. Do not depend in the SUBJECT'S dress manner.


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VIGILANCE TECHNIQUES

COMING INTO A BUILDING:The size, nature and surroundings are significant
considerations to determine future actions. Small buildings, if any, could be
kept under vigilance, it is not necessary to follow the SUBJECT to this
building unless the SUBJECT made a contact WITH other persons there in the
past. In large buildings, follow the SUBJECT and use the inside of the
building to your advantage. Keep in mind that lazy persons attract attention.

ELEVATORS: Follow the SUBJECT to the elevator only if there are other persons
and if the SUBJECT does not suspect he is been observed. Stop in the floor
above or below the SUBJECT and use the stairs to get to the same floor as the
SUBJECT'S. In department stores or similar buildings, the watch person could
leave the elevator on the same floor as the SUBJECT. If the SUBJECT enters an
elevator alone, stay in the lobby and determine the direction the SUBJECT went
to by observing the floor indicator of the elevator. Use the stairs and
another elevator to reach the same floor as the SUBJECT'S.

Figure 4 (cont.)

7. Conduct the vigilance using one of the methods mentioned below:

a. The method of a watchman

NOTE: Avoid this method in a moving vigilance, if possible, because it does
not allow flexibility.

(1) Operate in behind the SUBJECT and in the same street.

(2) Operate in the street adjacent to the SUBJECT when it is
operationally necessary to avoid the commitment of the vigilance. The
circumstance will dictate if we must operate in front, behind or next to the
SUBJECT. (EXAMPLE: Operate next to the SUBJECT when he turns around the corner
to observe if he makes contact or enters into a building).

(3) Keep close to the SUBJECT to observe his actions.









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(4) If the SUBJECT turns around in a corner and the area is not too
crowded continue crossing the street in the intersection. Observe the street in
the direction of the SUBJECT, write down the position and action of the person and
act according to the situation.

(5) If the SUBJECT turns around in a corner that is crowded, stop in
the corner, in a casual manner and observe the SUBJECT'S actions. Unless the
SUBJECT is stopped in a corner, continue the vigilance in the same street.

b. The two watchmen method ("AB" method)

(1) A watchman is kept in position "A" directly behind the SUBJECT.

(2) A second watchman is kept in position "B" behind "A" or in the street
next to the SUBJECT and next to him.

(3) The distance is kept according to the situation.

(4) If both watchmen are in the same street and the SUBJECT turns around
in the corner, watchman "A" continues to walk in the original direction and
crosses the street at the intersection. From the adjacent street, watchman "A"
points out the appropriate procedures of following the SUBJECT to watchman "B".

(5) If watchman "B" is operating in the adjacent street and the SUBJECT
turns around in the same corner that he is at, watchman "B" must cross the street
behind the SUBJECT and take watchman "A"s position. It is not necessary to use
signals because this arrangement must be established beforehand.

(6) If watchman "B" is operating in the adjacent street and the SUBJECT
crosses the street in the direction of watchman "B", watchman "B" must limit his
step to avoid contact WITH the SUBJECT. Watchman "B" must enter in a store or
continue walking straight ahead, keeping visual contact WITH watchman "A" to look
for a signal indicating his next move.











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c. The three men method (The "ABC" method).

(1) A member of a group is placed in position "A" at a short distance from
the SUBJECT. Watchman "A" observes WITH detail and writes down the SUBJECT'S
actions.

(2) The second watchman is placed in position "B" behind watchman "A".
Watchman "B" keeps the constant observation of actions of both watchman "A" and
the SUBJECT and prepares to assume the position of watchman "A" when it is
required. Watchman "B" also observes to see if there are any convoys and takes
appropriate action against these convoys.

(3) The third watchman is placed in position "C" in the street adjacent
and next tQ the SUBJECT. Watchman "C" directs the actions of watchman "A" and "B"
WITH signals arranged beforehand and prepares to assume the watchman "A"s position
if the SUBJECT crosses the street and leaves watchmen "A" and "B" alone.

NOTE: If the group of watchmen have more persons, they will follow behind
watchmen "B" and "C".

(4) If the subject turns around the corner directly on the side he is
walking (out of watchman "C"), watchman "A" crosses the street in the intersection
and assumes the position of watchman "C" and watchman "B" places himself in
position "A" and watchman "C" crosses the street and places himself in position
"B".

(5) If the SUBJECT turns around the corner and crosses the street in the
direction of watchman "C", it is not necessary to change positions.

(6) If the SUBJECT simply crosses the street in which he is walking,
without turning around any place, then watchman "C" is placed in position "A", and
watchman "A" assumes the position of watchman "C" and watchman "B" crosses the
street and places himself in position "B".

NOTE: All position changes must be directed depending upon the circumstances and
the watchmen judgement and they will be done in a way so as not to attract the
attention of the population or the SUBJECT'S attention.









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d. The progressive vigilance is used when the SUBJECT has counter-
vigilance experience and it is expected that he will use any technique to avoid
the vigilance.

(1) Locate the SUBJECT'S place to start (residence, office, etc).

(2) After locating this point, start to pick up the SUBJECT from any place
outside out of his sight.

(3) Continue and observe the SUBJECT only at short distances on the first
day.

(4) In the foll