CHAPTER I Print
INTRODUCTION

This chapter has as objective to present the procedures that must
be followed on obtaining and utilization of personnel required to
gather information with intelligence value for the government.
Also discussed is the need of:

a. Rely on government sources in places and organizations
that fall in the hands of insurrection elements

b. The types of sources (employees) used in the intelligence
system of the government.

c. Exploitation of the inherent weaknesses to all
insurrection movements.

d. The mission and analysis of the objective.

e. The procedure relative to obtaining and use of the
employee's services.

DEVELOPMENT:
a. THE EMPLOYEE: We can define the "employee" as that person who
renders his services in exchange of remuneration or compensation.
Since the insurrection movements could emerge in different zones of
economic, political and geographic influence, the government is not
able to depend only on the information provided voluntarily by
faithful citizens or information obtained involuntarily from
insurgents who have been captured. There must be some incentive to
assure the continuous supply of information to the government.
consequently, it is necessary to disseminate in all, society
segments individuals suppliers of information whose services may be
remunerated. An employee is that person who provides information
of value to the intelligence in exchange of some compensation
whether in money or some other kind. This person could be a
peasant. of the hamlet, a member of the cell of the insurgent
organization, or a propaganda leader.

The suppliers of information must be dispersed in all places
considered important, in all popular organizations, regardless of
their size and in all places where could appear some insurrection
outbreak.


B. TYPES OF EMPLOYEES

The CI agent must use the services of a variety of persons in
order to be able to evaluate all aspects of national life. These

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persons represent a diversity of characteristics. Each employee is
an individual with his own personality and he must be treated as
such. The tasks that these employees have to perform are also of
individual nature. There will be tines when the supervisors will
be forced to direct the activities of various employees.

1. The Supervisor: A supervisor is the chief of a network of
employees, organized to perform specific tasks of information
collection. When the government CI agent is not able to supervise
the employees or he does not do it for security reasons, he tries
to find a supervisor whom he trains to deal with this task. Said
supervisor responds before the CI agent and works under his
direction. The degree of orientation that the agent provides to
supervisor shall depend on his competence, training,
trustworthiness, function, personality, etc. On planning
information gathering activities, the agent must use a supervisor
only when it is necessary.

a. Tasks: The supervisor must direct the activities of the
group of employees and provide the direction and control that the
agent would normally provide. Must perform administrative as well
as operational functions. In addition, it is his responsibility to
evaluate the work of the employees in order to test their
motivation, discipline and security measures which they observe in
their operations. He could demand to obtain employees so that then
present them with fictitious histories. The supervisor on
performing these serves as a screen for the CI agent and acts as an
intermediary between him and the employees.

2. The Information Collectors: The information collector is a
trained and remunerated person to carry out tasks related to
gathering of information. Said individual could be asked to
affiliate himself to a syndicate, who attends the meetings and who
reports above all what happens. At the same time, he could be
asked to obtain information from merchants why certain primary need
articles are not available.

He could present himself as a disagreeable individual, who fits
well in the insurgent organization. The information collector is
a person directly linked to intelligence mission. it is bestowed on
him to obtain the requested information and to report on the same.

3. Support Personnel: As support personnel are known those
persons who collaborate with the information collectors. These
persons do not participate directly in information gathering
activities, but without them the information collectors could not
carry out their assignments. The agent uses the support personnel
to carry out security, communication, technical assistance tasks
and an unlimited number of various projects.

a. Security Personnel: Security personnel includes the

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intermediary, the vigilant and the investigator. The intermediary
is the connection between the members of an information gathering
organization who do not know each other. He can transmit
information or could deliver documents or other objects. His
principal function consists in watching over the security of
operations. The vigilant is to observe and report an the
activities of other employees, of individuals that could be
considered as employees in the future and other matters of interest
related to intelligence personnel administration. The investigator
conducts discreet investigations about an individual supposed to be
employed as information collector for the government. He could
also investigate specific organizations and persons to provide the
agent information on which to base future operations.

b. Technical Personnel: The technical personnel provides the
support necessary to perform certain missions. They could be
demolition specialists, carpenters, tailors, preparation of
documents or any other specialized branch.

c. Service Personnel: The special service personnel is varied
and versatile. This group includes employees who take the place of
contact personnel, who have exceptional persuasion gifts, personnel
versed in teaching and personnel which procures to find promising
employees. There are also employees, usually a couple, whose
residence offers all the security of the case, in a way that the
agent as well as the information collector could meet there for
training purposes, consultation or training when this is necessary.

The purchasing personnel, which discreetly and in secret obtains
the required equipment to carry out a specific mission, is also
found in this category. The CI agent must direct many and diverse
information gathering activities in order to identify and exploit
the insurgent. In order to perform this mission successfully, must
make use of the services of a variety of employees. The best
results shall depend on the agent's ability to find, employ, train
and evaluate personnel capable to carry out a diversity of tasks.


C. VULNERABILITIES OF THE INSURGENTS: An important aspect of the
whole insurrection movement and a great difficulty for the
implementation of countermeasures is the fact that the subversive
activities and the organization of the insurgents remains hidden in
the initial stages. The appearance of guerrilla or paramilitary
units occurs when the movement already has already acquired
substance. Said units are organized only after a solid base of
direction and support has been established.

1. CHARACTERISTICS: The process of creating a revolutionary base
is characterized by the number of activities that must be carried
out:
a. Personnel recruitment

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b. Organization of clandestine cells
c. Infiltration in organizations that gather large masses of
persons.
d. Acquisition and storage of supplies.

The subversive elements usually unleash a psychologic offense,
taking advantage of the agitation and propaganda, with the
objective of discrediting the government and to intensify and
canalize the popular discontent.

2. PLANNING: On planning operations, it is highly important to
point out that, even when there is not any activity felt on the
part of the guerrillas, an insurrection movement could be in
gestation. Every countermeasure that concentrates only on the
activities of the guerrillas, without taking into consideration the
secret organization and the great preparation before the violence
explodes, is destined to fail.

The mere elimination of the guerrillas does not alter in any way
the basic organization of the insurgents. If it is to achieve a
victory permanent in nature, the internal defense operations must
be planned before the guerrillas initiate their operations, attack
that contemplates the subversive secret elements as well as its
military arm, once the movement reaches its second phase.

3. UTILIZATION: In order to use the government employees in a
more effective manner in their information gathering task, we must
know how to distinguish the vulnerabilities themselves in the
structure and methods of functioning of said organization, in order
to be able to indicate to employees specific points where they must
concentrate their efforts.

4. SECURITY:

a. The insurgent secret organization justifiably concedes
much importance to security, since it functions clandestinely. An
organization created to provide the maximum degree of security to
personnel that operates in it suffers from certain inherent
deficiencies. In a secret organization divided into department,
there is very little horizontal communication among the cells. All
written communication is transmitted by a labyrinthic system of
intermediaries and third persons. In addition, centralized control
is exercised in the insurgent organization. Even though this
system allows great security, on the other hand it has its
disadvantages. A deserter, for example, could be more or less
certain that there will be no reprisals against him if all other
members of his cell (who are the only ones who know that he was
part of this cell) are eliminated by the government security
forces. This circumstance could be used to persuade insurgent
deserters to provide information to the government.

EXAMPLE: In a rubber plantation in Malaysia a worker was

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observed while he was carrying supplies illegally to communist
guerrillas. The police, informed of his activities, allowed him to
continue until they had sufficient information and compromising
evidence. One afternoon they arrested him in a deserted road
presenting him with all the evidence against him.

The worker found himself in a dilemma. He could be imprisoned
for ten years for having helped the terrorists or he could be
executed by the terrorist on finding out that be had cooperated
with the police. Because of secret security measures only five
terrorists knew the worker's name. The police suggested to the
worker that he could resolve his dilemma is he mentioned the names
of the terrorists. That way, said worker gained a reward, at the
same time freeing himself from the threat of retaliation.

b. If the government succeeds to convince an insurgent
organization that it has been infiltrated, the organization
naturally increases its security measures. The more strict the
security measures may be, the lass are the probabilities that said
organization would be concerned in secret activities against the
government.

c. The secret insurgent organization usually places the new
elements in positions where they to no have access to valuable
information. only after many severe tests the member succeeds to
receive a position of responsibility. The government, however,
could obviate these security methods.

d. In an effort to find a person to infiltrate the Huk
organization, the Philippine military command secretly came in
contact with the parents of various Huk commanders until it found
the cousin of a commander who stated that he was willing to
cooperate. After some months of special training, the cousin was
sent where his relative Huk was. As relative he had access to his
cousin, but in order to justify his joining the ranks of the Huks,
the Philippine army burned his home, imprisoned his brother and
evacuated his parents. The government, at that time, agreed to pay
all damages and discomfort that had been caused. in view of the
fact that he had obvious reasons to dislike the government, the
cousin was accepted without any problem, in the Huk organization,..
assigning him the post of tax collector of the Hacienda National
Commission (the supplying secret arm of the organization).

e. In order to allow this "infiltrator" to advance within the
Huk organization, the government helped him to collect medicines,
munitions and weapons. For some months the Huks received
government supplies through the "infiltrator".

Through a complex system of signals and contacts, this
government employee transmitted valuable information to security
forces about the most important collaborators and members of the
Huk Hacienda National Commission.

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f. The communication methods used by the insurgent secret
elements also break down, which provide the opportunity for
infiltration by government employees. In the initial stages,
almost all insurrection activity originates among the population.
The insurgents primarily depend on messengers and hidden secret
places with the anticipation of receiving and transmitting
messages. When they are discovered by the government security
forces, as a rule they are not immediately captured, but they keep
them under surveillance in order to be able to identify the other
contacts. By means of this surveillance, the government security
forces could come to know the principal insurgent messengers, who
could be persuaded to work as government employees.

g. During the initial phases, the insurgents are feverishly
busy to form facade organizations and to infiltrate in institutions
composed of large masses of persons. We already have seen that a
relatively small number of individuals could succeed in controlling
an organization by means of infiltration and fixed elections. The
government could easily find out of the insurgent activity in these
organizations, through the distribution of its employees in all
organizations that it suspects to be of interest to insurgent
groups. Among the principal organizations of this type one could
mention the political parties, the syndicates and youth and student
groups. The operating method of the insurgents could be noticed by
the government employees, since the tactics follow a pattern that
is continuously repeated.

h. The government must, much before, to watch the members of
the communist party in the locality, who devote themselves to
selecting persons for training outside the country in subversive
and insurgent tactics. When it succeeds to identify the selected
individuals, must try to induce them to work for the government
without abandoning the insurgent organization. Likewise it must
try, much earlier, to infiltrate the insurgent organization placing
government employees in positions where they could be recruited by
the insurgents.

i. Since the insurgent organization is weak and vulnerable in
the first phase, obtaining precise and timely information is of
great importance for the insurgents. During this phase all efforts
are concentrated to subversion of individuals and organizations, to
establishment of operation bases and to consolidation of their
position. The success in the formation or subversion of
organizations is directly related with the ability of the insurgent
to gather information. The insurgents depend almost totally on the
population to obtain information. Said information provided to the
insurgents could come to the knowledge of government employees.
When there are groups of people dedicated to providing information
to the insurgents, the government could simple place its employees
among said groups.

j. During the insurrection movement in Malaysia, for

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example, the English depended an certain villagers to provide
information to local authorities. They had to find a way to
protect said persons against the threat of terrorism of the
insurgent elements. in one case, the police visited each house in
a village, delivering to inhabitants a page of paper on which they
should write, without putting their names, any information relative
to activities of the insurgents in the village. The following day
the police returned with an sealed urn and proceeded to collect all
the papers, whether they were blank or otherwise. Since each house
in the village had been visited, the insurgents could not determine
who were the government employees.

k. The insurgents depend on the population not only to
receive information, but also as a source of supply of personnel
and provisions. The importance of this support increases at the
rate the reach and magnitude of the that the operations of the
insurgents increase. The insurgents need the population for the
expansion and replacement of their military and paramilitary
forces, for the establishment and operation of information
supplying networks and early warning service and the construction
of base and training camp areas. The population represents the
principal source of food, medicines and construction material.

On the other hand, the population provides to the insurgent the
necessary means of concealment, allowing him to mingle with the
population in order to avoid being discovered by the government.
Since the insurgent depends so much on the support of the people of
the locality, the government CI agent could take advantage of this
situation using personnel coming from the locality.

l. The principal objective of the insurgents in the second
phase consists in continuously increasing the guerrilla force.
This could only be achieved by intensification of the recruitment
program of the insurgent elements. The guerrilla command must
increase its forces until it reaches the size of a regular army.
This exigency, nevertheless, conflicts with the normal practice of
observing extreme care in testing the trustworthiness of every
guerrilla recruit. it is impossible to achieve a rapid increase of
the forces and to conserve at the same time high security standards
in the process. Consequently, the insurgent military organization
finds itself exposed to infiltration and penetration by government
employees.

m. The manual labor required for the construction work in the
base area exceeds, as a rule, the capacity of the insurgent forces.
The insurgents rely on civilian manual labor, which could be
obtained voluntarily or involuntarily. Therefore, a great number
of persons who live in the locality will have knowledge of the
location of said classes of operation. The CI agent must try to
obtain this information from these persons. some will talk
voluntarily, while others will have to be persuaded.

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n. Regardless what its motivation may be, however, there is
a condition which must be guaranteed before any person agrees to be
employed by the government in a zone dominated by insurgent
elements. The fact of being government employee must not imply
some compromise, and having done so, must protect the individual as
well as his family against reprisals by the insurgents. This need
for secrecy involves carrying out covert activities such as the
proliferation and operation of information-gathering networks by
the government. However,, open methods could be employed for
information gathering to take advantage of the vulnerability
previously pointed out in the organization of the insurgents. The
"anonymous report" system, used by the English in Malaysia, is an
example of information gathering in an open manner, through which
the identity of the source is protected.

o. The insurgents will be forced to come into contact with
certain persons in the locality,, such as merchants and suppliers,
in order to obtain provisions and other articles. When they are
persuaded to work for the government, said merchants could help
identify the individuals of the connection used by the insurgents
in these operations. After the surveillance of said individuals in
order to discover the identity of other key elements of the
insurrection and at the same time find their bases of operation.
The information relative to the purchases made by the insurgents
could also be used by the experts in intelligence analysis to
evaluate the troops, the need for essential supplies and the
operations that the insurgents could attempt.

p. It would be impossible to handle all these possible
deficiencies or vulnerabilities that an insurgent organization is
suffering from. For that reason, we have been limited in making
observations in place of categoric affirmations. Even when the
insurrection movement in its initial stage is clandestine and
apparently intangible, it could be discovered and destroyed through
the timely and effective use of personnel entrusted of supplying
information. The insurrection is a bad one and must not be
tolerated. The secret organization could be identified and
exploited. However, the CI agent must know how and where to look
to find the focus of insurrection and for that must possess the
necessary information. In addition must know the characteristic
weaknesses of the insurgent organization and how to proceed to..
exploit them.

D. MISSION AND TARGET ANALYSIS:

1. Before talking about obtaining and using government
employees, we see the many factors which the CI agent must consider
before using persons for a specific mission. WE said that he ought
to rely on information gathering individuals before any indications
of the insurrection movement appear. We also mentioned that as
soon as the movement begins, the CI agent must select the targets
which must be investigated by the government employees, in order to
allow

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for easy and timely gathering of essential information. Then the
missions could vary from the gathering of information in general
until the infiltration of the staff of the insurgents, the secret
supplying system or calls of the insurgents.

The CI agent must study each mission and analyze each target
before proceeding to select the employees before the mission. The
steps which the CI agent should take upon receiving an order from
his superiors to collect information are:

a. Analyze the mission.
1) Analyze the requirements
2) Analyze the target
3) Develop plans
4) Select the employees
5) Execute the plan.

2. ANALYZE THE REQUIREMENTS:

Just as this diagram indicates, the CI agent first must analyze
the information requirements. He must ask himself, "What
information is wanted?" He must study the directive to make certain
that understands it entirely. Then he must reduce the order in the
most simple form and select specific targets that have to be
investigated. He must also perform an exhaustive investigation to
obtain all pertinent information and experience previously acquired
on the subject. This way, will acquire general knowledge which
will allow him to prepare a solid, logic and concise plan. All
planning will have as basis the specific information that he asked
for about the specific target.

3. ANALYZE THE TARGET:

We are now going to analyze the target. The type of target
selected depends, frequently, on the stage of the insurrection
movement. Said target could be in a rural or urban zone, could
deal with commercial or political matters or it could imply
infiltration or surveillance. Where an insurrection movement
exists there will always be a multiplicity of circumstance that
could be exploited to obtain information.

1) We can define the target analysis as the detailed
investigation of the target and the zone of the same in order to
find any condition that could impede or facilitate the government
Is mission. The analysis of the target could also be described as
the process of collecting, comparing and evaluating information
with respect to a target in order to be able to prepare plans for
a specific mission.

2) After gathering and arranging all the pertinent
information, the evaluation of the same follows. In this aspect,
the analysis of the target is of primary importance in order to

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find the most appropriate way to exploit it. Through this process
secondary targets are going to be found and identified. The
priority of the principal targets is determined at the same time.

4. PLAN PREPARATION
a. once a target is identified, must proceed to prepare an
operation plan. The CI agent must consider the method of operation
that is necessary to carry out the mission, if it is necessary or
not to look for a person with specific abilities, how and when to
assign specific tasks to the employee, the identity that said
employee will have to adapt, the nature of support that he will
have to offer, etc.

b. The factors considered in the selection of an employee
will be summarized in this chapter and explained in detail in
subsequent chapters. In this aspect, the exigencies of the
mission, the place where the activities are going to be carried out
and the requirements which the person who is going to carry out the
mission should have, must be considered. Failing to analyze
carefully the potential employee, getting to know his history,
access and motivation could result in failure of the entire
mission.

5. PLAN EXECUTION:

Finally, a decision must be made in regards to the execution of the
plan. The experience of the CI agent, the ability of the
individuals who participate in the operation, the availability of
essential support articles for the successful execution of the
plan, and above all, the time available shall determine how and
when the plan will be placed in operation.

E. OBTAINING AND USE OF THE EMPLOYEE SEQUENCE:

1. At this time perhaps there is some curiosity about the
subject related to obtaining, training and use of employees. It
would be best to ask: Who are these persons employed by the
government to collect information? What are these persons? Where
could be found? How are they trained to carry out their tasks?
How can their services be utilized for maximum benefit? What
salaries they must be paid? What is the fate of these individuals
when the government does not need them?

2. We hope to be able to answer all these questions in this
manual. We shall also explain procedures that have been used and
are presently used in other countries to intelligence to support
stabilization operations.

3. Obtaining and using employees represents a cyclical chain
of events that include the following general procedures:

a. Locate the potential employee

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b. Initial investigation of the employee's history.
c. Contact and negotiation.
d. Assignment of tasks.
e. Training of the employee
f. Development of an identity.
g. Scrutiny of the employee.
h. Termination of employment.

4. We shall explain these procedures step by step in the
following chapters. We shall also study the methods used to place
the employee at the target zone, provide protection to the
individual and to the call, establish secure communication between
the CI agent and the employee, and to keep personnel records.

5. Each step in the sequence of obtaining and use of the
employee does not suddenly determine to begin the next step. The
planning, although it does not appear in the previous list, is a
continuous task that begins the moment the CI agent receives the
order to obtain information and ends after the employee has been
separated from government service. Said planning must be complete
and exact, it must also be flexible. Must embrace, in a general
way, all aspects of a project and a specific analysis of each
phase. Must take into consideration the characteristics of the
target zone, as well as the personality, history and competence of
each employee. The effective gather of information requires a
detailed planning. If the CI agent does not prepare complete and
continuous plans will often fail in his attempt to obtain the
required information.

6. LOCATING THE POTENTIAL EMPLOYEE:

a. The CI agent must plan and initiate an early and
continuous search for potential employees who have the enthusiasm
and meet the necessary aptitudes to obtain the information that the
government wants. Must know where to find the different types of
employees that could be needed. The ability to find at any time
potential information collectors is indispensable for the
successful outcome of intelligence.

b. Before the infiltration of insurgent elements in the
community becomes obvious, they must procure the services of
individuals who are in a position or who could be placed in a
position that allows them to obtain essential information.
Networks of government employees must be established in the rural
as well as in the urban zone. Said employees must be dispersed in
antigovernment organizations, in commercial centers and in any
place where there is suspicion that insurrection outbreaks could
emerge.

c. The CI agent must be prepared to use said individuals in
obtaining specific information in specific zones when incidents of
some insurrection emerge. The organizations that have been
infiltrated, the villages from which they obtain farm products and

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the groups of discontented people represent places of interest for
the insurgent elements.

d. The CI agent must use the services of all employees
available to exploit to maximum every vulnerability of the
insurgent organization. Must infiltrate secretly the organization
of the insurgents, get into the structure bf the same, prepare a
list of the members, determine their spheres of influence and
exploit its communication system. He must be constantly in search
of potential employees in the zones and organizations where he
could obtain valuable information. The individual employees must
have access to information wanted and to be sufficiently motivated
to carry out the mission.

e. Having access carries with it the ability of the employee
to place himself in a position that allows him to obtain specific
information without being discovered by the insurgents. This
implies the surreptitious or accepted presence of the government
employee in the same place where the information is. Said employee
must have the means to reach the organization or target zone and to
remain there without anyone finds out that he is searching for
information.

f. When we speak of motivation, we refer to incentive or
enthusiasm which stimulates the employee to work for the
government. There are many types of motivation, some better than
others, from the CI agent's point of view. In accordance with the
sentiments that motivate him, an employee could be trustworthy to
his government or become a traitor. What ever the employee's
motivation may be it serves to indicate whether he will be faithful
and worthy of trust, the CI agent must analyze this factor very
carefully.

7. INITIAL INVESTIGATION OF THE EMPLOYEE'S HISTORY:

a. Every potential employee must be subject of investigation
before his services are requested. The CI agent must determine if
he is dealing with a person to whom he can confide, the reasons
that he could have to work for the government and if he meets the
aptitude to apply himself to secret activities for the purpose of
collecting information. The first investigation is carried out
before employing the individual and it is repeated while he remains
employed with the government. It is an investigation similar to
that in which persons are submitted before allowing them access to
confidential information. The former as well as the subsequent
investigations should be carried out with discretion, without
arising any suspicion in the individual who is being investigated.

b. The initial investigation begins after having discovered
an individual who is deemed that he could help the government to
obtain information. The investigating agent must

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find out all the information about the individual that would rule
him out; that is to say, disloyalty, emotional instability
indications, being employed with another intelligence agency,, etc.
The investigation must be tedious, in order to allow to ask for
data about the courage, weaknesses, personality, ideology,
religious beliefs, economic situation, political affiliation,
family ties, education, professional training and military history
of the potential employee. And for which it is even more
important, said initial investigation must contribute to determine
the potential employees motivation to establish if he would be
compatible in his status as government employee.

8. CONTACT AND NEGOTIATION:

a. In this stage, the CI agent tries to persuade the
potential employee to agree to work for the government. This could
be carried out in a day, but in all probability could take weeks or
even months. The CI agent must cultivate the friendship of the
potential employee, trying to hide the reason of his interest in
him. He must study the individual and suggest to him discreetly at
the most opportune moment to accept to work for the government.
These actions end when the duly trained and motivated person , that
could be controlled, accepts to work for the government.

b. Appropriate security measures must be taken in the entire
process of dealing with the potential employee. The degree of
control must be such that allows to achieve the objective without
lessening the security measures. When it becomes evident that this
would not succeed, then the actions must be suspended.

c. It is necessary to prepare a careful planning and a
careful initial investigation before approaching the potential
employee. This process implies, on the part of the CI agent, a
series of steps that allow to have the potential employee under
constant surveillance. We shall deal with this subject in more
detail in a subsequent chapter.

9. TASKS ASSIGNMENT:

a. The CI agent must plan carefully every aspect of the task
that he is going to assign to the employee. Must consider the
employee I& ability in relation to the intelligence mission. He
must be totally familiar with the different aspects of the zone of
the objective, in order to be able to provide to employee up to
date data related to the situation, the conditions and the
environment in which he will have to work. The CI agent must also
develop and provide to employee the necessary documentation,
clothing, equipment and other articles which he will need to carry
out his mission. The task assignment must be planned and the
employee must be given detailed and specific instructions in
regards to the mission to be carried out and how it would be
carried out.

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b. The CI agent must also ascertain that appropriate security
measures are adopted in selecting and assigning tasks to an
employee.

The existence of convenient security measures increases the
propability of a happy conclusion of the mission and guarantees
that in case of disloyalty or capture, the employee will not be in
condition to reveal but a limited amount of information. Must seek
at all cost maximum protection at the intelligence effort of the
government.

10. EMPLOYEE TRAINING:

a. The purpose of training consists in assuring that the
employee has the necessary knowledge and training to perform his
functions successfully. For greater security, the employee must be
trained only in those specific aspects of the tasks that will be
assigned to him. At the rate he is assigned new tasks, he would
also be given the required training. The training of the employees
must be polished and continuous.

b. There are three factors that determine the content and the
range of training provided to the employee. Said factors are: The
nature of the mission, the ability and training of the employee and
the operational situation. The nature of the mission, as a rule,
indicates the type of training to be provided to the employee; the
competence and experience of the employee with influence in his
ability to assimilate data and acquire new skills, whereas the
operational situation shall determine the training environment.

1) For example, the mission could demand the employee to
determine if the opposition in an organization that brings together
a large number of people obeys to subversive influences, to
determine the type and amount of consumption articles do not reach
their original destination. The employee's history could influence
in the way he reacts in respect to training and lack of specific
abilities. The operational situation could determine if the
employee will be available to receive training, likewise the
attitude of the people in the training area, and the possibility
that there nay be infiltration of insurgent elements in said area.

11. DEVELOPMENT OF AN IDENTITY:

a. We are going to see now, briefly, the manner of selecting
an identity for the employee. Once the potential employee agrees
to work for the government, the CI agent must create an identity
and train him in its use.

The identity of an employee could agree with his real history,
concealing only what refers to his activities of

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information collector. Or could conceal not only his activities,
but also everything related to his real life. His identity could
serve to justify the reason for which he works and lives in a
specific place or could serve to explain his actions when they may
have been devoted to the task of obtaining information.

b. There is an unlimited number of identities that could be
chosen. Before selecting an identity for an employee, the CI agent
must analyze the mission, consider the history, personality and
intelligence of the employee and to study the environment where the
operation would have to be carried out. The employee must
understand why he has been given a specific identity. He must also
study and exercise the use of the same in a way that his reaction
may be immediate and correct in any circumstances.

12. EMPLOYEE RECRUITMENT:

a. An employee's scrutiny begins from the moment the CI agent
approaches him to induce him to work for the government and ends
when he is separated from government service. The employee must
submit to testing to determine the veracity of his declaration
regarding his history, his sense of responsibility and emotional
ability. This way could be determined if the insurgent movement
enjoys the employee's sympathy or if he has been employed by them,
the degree of control that the CI agent must exercise on the
employee's activities and the accuracy of the reports presented by
him. The frequency with which the employee is subjected to testing
will be a competence matter of the CI agent. The CI agent must
evaluate continuously the information and activities of the
employee. He must compare them with known data and with the
activities of other employees. This way, the CI agent will be able
to discover discrepancies indicative of dishonesty or control
failure.

b. You will learn that there are many ways to test an
employee. A complete report by the employee after having carried
out the assigned mission is always necessary. The CI agent must be
prepared for the presentation of this report with the same polish
and care observed in the planning and assignment of the task.

Must listen attentively, observe all actions of the employee
when he makes his report and to be alert to discover any
discrepancy that may arise. The scrutiny of the employee must be
scrupulous and continuous during the entire period that the
employee remains in government service. This way, the CI agent
could maintain the necessary control and the degree of security
indispensable in these operations.

13. EMPLOYEE TERMINATION:

a. The employee's separation must be considered before the
process of requesting the collaboration of the same. On

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agreeing the individual to work for the government, the CI agent
must already have prepared a plan that contemplates the moment in
which the services of said individual may not be needed. He must
also be prepared to consider all conditions that the employee could
propose in that respect. The CI agent must come to an agreement
with the employee on any subject that is within the range of his
authority.

b. The CI agent must also consider the manner of releasing an
employee who turns out to be disloyal or incompetent. There are
many options that refer to dismissal of employees. All dismissals
must be considered in relation with the mission, the employee's
past performance, his present efficiency, etc. . The possibility of
using to advantage the services of said employee in the future must
also be considered. The CI agent, as you will learn, must prepare
complete and detailed reports immediately after the employee
renders his report following his separation from government
service.

SUMMARY:
A. In this chapter we have summarily considered some procedures
used in obtaining and the use of persons to government service
dedicated to secret activities of information gathering. There are
many other sources of information and the information that could be
obtained openly is considerable. Nevertheless, there is certain
information which could only be obtained by secret means. If the
government is to be fully informed about insurrection indications
and to be prepared to exploit the vulnerabilities inherent to
insurgent organization, it is necessary to undertake activities of
broad projections, employing for that the services of many
employees.

B. Must keep in mind that every insurrection movement suffers
from deficiencies in respect to insurgent organization itself and
the way in which it usually carries out its operations. The agent
must gather as much information as he can about the organization,
the communication system, the organizations subject to infiltration
and the personnel recruitment tactics used by the insurgents.
Then, he must arrange and study this information through analysis
of the mission and the targets. Finally, he must prepare a plan
and choose the employees to exploit specific targets. For the
selection of the appropriate employees without disrespect to
security, the CI agent must follow the procedure related to
obtaining and use of employees, namely:
1. Locate the potential employee
2. Initial investigation of the employee's history
3. Contact and negotiation.
4. Task assignment
5. Employee training
6. Development of an identity.
7. Scrutiny of the employee
8. Termination of the employee.

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C. The CI agent must plan carefully every phase of these
activities. He must consider his own potentials and those of the
insurgents, the possible courses of action that could be adopted by
him as well as by the insurgents and must determine what are the
most lucrative objectives.

D. One a decision is taken, the CI agent must prepare detailed
plans, try to meet persons suitable for the work to be carried out,
carefully investigate the history of said persons,, and to
cultivate their friendship for the purpose of persuading them to
agree to work for the government. Before assigning these tasks to
some employee,, the CI agent must evaluate the competence of said
employee and to analyze each aspect of the mission and of the
objective. Then he must train the employee correctly, providing
him with all the instructions and information necessary to allow
him to carry out the assigned tasks.

E. The CI agent must be certain of the employee's honesty in
order to being deceived or place himself also at the service of the
insurgents. For that reason, the employee must be constantly
subject to testing. Must develop plans for when the time comes to
get rid of the employee's services much before becoming interested
to work for the government. The CI agent must constantly exercise
great care in carrying out successfully information gathering
activities through systematic planning and appropriate use of a
large number of people.

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