One of the goals that a skilful agent wants to achieve is to
obtain the greatest amount of information useable from his
employees in the most secure manner. He must always consider the
mission or the purpose for which the employee was originally
contracted, and to evaluate the amount of work that he has to do.
Factors to be considered are security, capacity and availability of
the employee. Only with a careful evaluation of these factors in
relation to the mission, the agent could complete his mission and
maintain a stable and effective work relationship with the employee
individually. In this chapter shall be discussed the details that
an agent must consider when he assigns the tasks to his employees.
Also the orientation and postorientation preparation. shall be


A. Purpose of the Employee:
If the agent has properly evaluated and contracted the
employee, there will be no doubt in regards to what he can or
cannot do, and must work according to this. The agent could
successfully complete his mission only when using each employee
properly according to his individual abilities.

B. Employee Security.
Tasks that could place the employee in a position in which he
could not give a logical explanation of his presence must not be
assigned to him. However, there are some cases in which the need
of the operations forces us to deviate from this principle The
agent must do every effort to assure the safety of his employee.
The agent must maintain his employee within his rules of action
already established. If he usually returns to his home early at
night, he must not ask him to attend meetings late at night. The
meetings and communications with the employee must be
planned keeping in mind the security. The agent must be concerned
with the security of the employee but he must keep in mind above
all the importance of the mission.

C. Ability of the Employee:

On assigning an operational task to an employee, the agent
must carefully consider the employee's aptitude to carry out the
mission. He must have an extensive knowledge of the employee's
history, a large part of which he must have obtained before and
after contracting him. The agent must be able to assign to the
employee valid and appropriate tasks based on individual



aptitudes.. Also he Must think of such things as the regular
occupation of the employee and to avoid assigning to him many
,missions that could risk his job and possibly his security. For
example, if the position or location of an employee is placed in an
area of great interest for the operations, we would be tempted to
the extreme to give him more tasks than he could possibly complete.
Making an employee work excessively could contribute to an employee
becoming discouraged, or worse, could cause to be detected by the


1. The agent has to deal with two different security aspects
on carrying out any orientation with the employee. The first is
about an evaluation of how well the employee has responded to
training that he has received about security, and how effectively
has put into practice what he learned. in this respect, the agent
wants to be certain that the employee has a reasonable opportunity
to carry out effectively the operational task that has been
assigned to him, using the personal security measures that he has
been taught. The special orientation of an employee for a specific
task must give him a complete direction and objectivity. For
efficiency the employee must receive the must precise, exact and
possibly specific instructions. It is here where the second aspect
emerges. on comparing the security to the efficiency, the agent
must decide up to what point the intelligence organization could be
prejudiced if the employee was discovered. In addition, although
the task in itself was small, its disclosure to unauthorized
persons ---- this commonly would apply to any disclosure to-any
person, since the agent is the only "authorized person" in regards
to what pertains to the employee --- could provide to guerrillas
information about the existence of the intelligence organization
and its objectives in general.

Giving the employee too much information would also make more
difficult the work to evaluate the employee so that he may
fabricate the information. The agent must provide sufficient
information to give the mission every reasonable opportunity for
success, but he must not give more information than necessary to
carry out the mission.

2. As a rule the orientation is given orally. A guide for
the orientation must be used as a verification list to make certain
that it was reported with sufficient details, and from the
intelligence point of view to have more control about that
information that will be disclosed to the employee. The
orientation guide which the agent uses as a verification list for
the oral orientation must be part of the agent's file that will be
used for the postorientation of the employee when he returns from
his mission. The orientation aids must be limited to those that are
necessary to successfully complete the mission, and most not reveal
more than necessary about the objective zone. if some written



material is to be provided to employee, two things must be done:

a. The written material must be kept to minimum and serve
mainly as a reminder.

b. What is needed to be written must be reduced to a code
and be adequately concealed.

In giving his explanation to the employee# the agent must be
careful to avoid using intelligence jargon or imprecise terms.

E. Requirements of an orientation or postorientation area:
1) The orientation or postorientation area shall be
determined on the basis of existing time limitations, the operation
security requirements, the conditions under which the agent must
work, and the complexity and sensitivity of the orientation or
postorientation that will be given to employee. When the use of
considerable technical aids is necessary for the orientation or
postorientation, such as large scale maps, photographic files,
etc., the place must be one where such facilities could be
provided. In addition, when the information presentation
requirements are complex, such-as in cases where coordinates must
be traced, the identification must be exact and it must keep the
orientation, it is necessary that the agent uses places where the
orientation can be carried out without interruptions.

The questions about convenience, as well as requirements of the
intelligence task must be answered favorably on selecting a place
for the orientation or postorientation. The place chosen must
allow the agent, his organization and the employee to conserve
their identity.

F. Duration of orientation or postorientation:

The duration of an orientation/postorientation is governed by
the complexity of the mission, the focus of the objective, the
employee and the method of operation. If an employee who lives in
the objective zone is receiving an orientation or postorientation,
his documentation as well as the last events relating to the
environment or operational conditions in the objective zone present
little problem, and could be informed of them in a brief manner.
Emphasis is made in the fulfillment of the mission and in that the
employee is given specifically detailed instructions about the
nature of the task he has to perform. on the other hand, if the
employee who is oriented requires many documents, the introduction
to this and the explanation of his relation with the mission to be
carried out must be in a more detailed form. Also a comparison
could be made of an orientation or postorientation of an employee
who lives in the objective zone, who is oriented or post-oriented
by an agent under conditions that may require maximum security on
the part of the participants, with an orientation or post-
orientation conducted in a domestic zone under conditions provided
by the accommodations.



G. Use of Orientation Aids.
1. since the agent is familiarized before hand with the
nature and location of the objective, he must make all possible
preparations to provide these elements that are necessary for a
complete orientation. Above all, the agent must prepare an
orientation plan in order to be able to give the employee all the
details of the operation. The orientation plan serves as a
verification list during an orientation and assures that there is
not a prejudicial omission.

2. The employees orientations under practically every
operational situation must be a verbal process in its totality.
Consequently, the agent must be able to communicate in an effective
manner with the employee.
This facilitates the use of orientation aids ( some in graphic
art form, photographs or models for illustration purposes) to the
extend that it is necessary for a perfect comprehension during

3. The maps must be used to indicate the location of the
objective and the travel routes to and from the objective zone.
The models of the known security barriers must be used to orient
the employee about the infiltration and withdrawal methods. In
addition to that, photographs, models of the objective and of the
equipment, uniforms. recorders and other types of aids could be
used to facilitate the orientation.

4. The previously mentioned diverse aids are as a rule used
during the training phase to prepare the employee for his task
before the final orientation. The orientation then will show to
the employee how this particular training applies to this specific
situation, and also will allow the agent to determine the
effectiveness of the employee's training.

5. The same principles that apply to aids used during the
orientation apply to post-orientation.

H. Objective of Orientation:

1. The orientation of an employee. could be considered asan
extension of his training in very specific fields. Even though it
is, up to a certain point, a training continuation, it is more than
that because actually prepares or must prepare the employee for an
immediate operational task that he is expected to carry out.
Invariably case, the- degree of success that the employee would
have in completing his mission is directly related to the
orientation that he received from the agent before undertaking the
task. The employees orientation consists in providing him the most
recent events that could affect the operation, a general review of
the pertinent operational facts and detailed instructions regarding
the task itself. Thus we can say that the orientation of an
employee consists of two different parts:



a> Prepare the employee for the task, giving him the most
recent information about the conditions and environment within
which he is expected-to carry out his specific task.

The first phase of the orientation consists of the review and
evaluation of the situation. The preparation of an employee to
undertake a specific task includes all these abilities, knowledge
and experience that form the basis for his selection for the job.
It includes also the training that he was given in order to allow
him to reach this expertise that the agent considers necessary for
the task. The orientation, well, must give in its first phase all
pertinent Information about the present situation, based on the
most recent facts which the intelligence organization has
available. It must include a review of the most recent information
regarding the measures and security restrictions in effect in the
area of operation ( such things like curfews, travel restrictions,
documentation requirements, the presence of specific security
personnel). On the other hand, this step provides an excellent
opportunity for a general review of the pertinent facts, plus a
review of the understanding that the employee has about his task,
but cannot substitute the employee's necessary preparation for the
task, which should had been given during the training periods.

b) Prepare the employee for the task, giving him specific
instructions and details concerning the task or tasks that he is
expected to carry out and the manner in which he is expected to
carry then out. This constitutes the issuance of orders. The
second step in the orientation is the detailed instruction in
respect to the task itself. The agent must give to the employee
the most precise, exact and specific instructions concerning the
nature of the operation, the form of being carried out and its

I. Orientation:
1. A prior but flexible planning is necessary to carry out
successfully the employee's orientation, as well as all other
phases of the operation. The appropriate planning requires a logic
sequence during the orientation. This sequence consists of the
a) Initial period of the harmony establishing meeting: As
a rule, this is not the first meeting of the responsible agent with
the employee and, as such, this phase is intended for social
courtesies, for the relaxation of the atmosphere and for the
"harmony" continuation between the agent and the employee.

The agent, although he is concerned with the general welfare of
the employee, must take care to maintain an appropriate
relationship and to maintain control of the meeting. control during
the meeting could be facilitated through a complete preparation on
the part of the agent and his ability to effectively answer any
questions that could be formulated by the employee. This is



extremely important. The employee must respect the judgement and
the opinion of the agent. The inability of the agent to give the
employee complete and credible answers would diminish in part the
respect that the employee has for the agent. This could place in
danger the success of the mission due to lack of control. As a
result of a situation such as this, the employee could criticize
the plan and, if the mission continues, he may not follow the
agent's instructions.

The agent could use the preliminary phase of the harmony
establishment to review recent information about the activities and
history of the employee, which at times could be related with the
future job.

b) Review of the employee's state:
Before the true details of the planned mission could be
revealed, the agent must determine is the employee is competent,
ready and willing to carry out the assigned tasks. The first
matters of interest for the employee are the last information
referring to the employee, his family, his health, his regular
employment ( if he has any), his identity for the job ( if there is
any) and his way of thinking. The agent then must concern himself
if the employee is ready or not and able ( from the security point
of view) to perform the assigned tasks. Finally, the agent must be
certain that the employee is completely trained as it is expected
and that still retains the degree of expertise indicated at the
time of completing his instruction. Upon conclusion of this phase,
the agent must determine if the employee is prepared or not for the
planned mission.

c) General description of the mission:
Once it has been determined that the employee is able,
ready and willing to carry out the assigned- tasks, the agent is
prepared to enter the orientation phase about the "General
Description of the Mission". A preliminary general idea is given
to the employee during this phase about what is expected from him
to do, when it is expected to be done and how it is expected to do

As a rule, this is the first opportunity of the employee to
learn exactly what is expected from him to do. Consequently, the
agent must use this phase to entice comments from the employee
about the convenience, viability and acceptability of each point.
However, the employee must not be given the prerogative to refuse
a task or discard the planned fictitious identity on the basis of
his personal sentiments, likes or dislikes. During this phase the
orientation will be general with respect to the itinerary, the
method of travel, duration of the trip and the staying time in the
zone of the objective, the form and use of funds, documentation,
communications and operational tasks to be carried out. The agent
must be prepared to Answer any critique of the plan and to adjust
the plan if he believes it is necessary.



d) Explanation of Identity.

The orientation is specific and detailed during this
phase. Every type of identity ( having some) Which the employee
Vill be using is explained in detail. Although the fictitious
identity was already taught to the employee during his training
period, it is repeated here; the documents ( having some) will be
introduced as they are needed, and their functions will be
explained in due time. This way, his fictitious identity will be
more clear then if they had been delivered to the employee all
together at the beginning or at the and of the orientation.

e) Instructions about the Itinerary:

At this time, the agent will give the employee specific
instructions about the itinerary of the mission. This will include
instructions referring to the point of entry to the area, the route
and the method of travel, the activity inside the area, and the
route and method of travel from the area at any point of exit
point. These instructions frequently require the use of maps,
drawings, city plans, etc., that may be available. The need of
extensive and detailed maps will depend on the complexity and type
of the mission to be carried out.

f) Specific tasks:

At this point of the orientation, the employee will be given
specific instructions about the support tasks and search to be
carried out.

In respect to search tasks, the employee will be given a
detailed description and the location of each conformity
requirement with the security limitations and assignment of the
employee; what information wishes to know point by point; the
manner of finding and approaching the place or position; the
desired observation period and the manner of visual or photographic
observation. At this stage the employee must also be warned that
on returning from his mission, must deliver a complete report with
the description of how he carried out the mission, the
effectiveness of the identity and of the documentation, the.
security precautions in effect in the area, etc. Essentially, the
employee must broaden the knowledge that you have pretend to know.

g) Equip the employee what he needs:

During this phase, the employee is given funds to be used during
the mission, clothes, and technical or special devices that he nay
need according to assigned tasks. The type of the employee and the
type of the mission to be carried out shall determine the type or
amount of equipment to be delivered. The employee must have
received prior training and must be able to use



properly all the technical or special devices that are delivered

h) Specific security Instructions:

Before the orientation is concluded, the employee is given brief
and specific instructions about what to do and not to do in
relation with the assigned mission. Some Of these will be a
repetition of the instructions previously given; others given to
employee for the first time, will be instructions that limit
certain activities of the employee, which could be affected by
recently acquired information.

i) Review and inspection of the mission:

At this point, all instructive phases of the employee's
orientation have been completed and the employee has received all
the instructions, as well the necessary guidance to successfully
perform all the tasks that were assigned. This phase is used above
all to review completely all the instructions given the employee
and to test the employee's aptitude to carry out the assigned task.

The agent tries to refute the employee's fictitious identity
through questions about his history and his documentation. Must
observe and correct immediately all the areas in which the employee
evidently shows weakness or in those that he has not clearly
understood like he should. This phase is used then for the final
inspection of all the equipment and material delivered or by
delivering to the employee according to tasks that have been
assigned. The agent as well as the employee must test every piece
and how to use it carefully. Finally, the agent must make certain
that the employee does not carry anything but those that are
absolutely necessary for carrying out the task, which could
compromise the employee or the mission. The time that has to be
used to this "review and inspection" will depend on the complexity,
sensitivity and the type of the mission.

j) Termination of the meeting:

It is now supposed that the employee has been completely
oriented and that he is able to carry out the mission; therefore,
the setting of the date, time and place of the meeting or the
instructions about the meeting is stressed. Alternate plans are
discussed and emergency signals and communication means are
established. Financial and other support matters are determined.
The agent warns the employee of the latent danger carelessness and
inconsistent security imply, having reflected on what could happen
if he relaxes his own technique of personal security, if he is
confiding to people of the place, or if he visits his friends or
parents in the area. On arriving to this point, the orientation
has entirely been completed and the employee is ready for his



mission. The agent must show a sincere interest for the
welfare of the employee. The employee with recognize and
appreciate this, carrying out the termination of the orientation
and send off in constant harmony.

This has been one type of orientation. An exact form cannot be
followed because each orientation is carried out according to the
type of the mission and type of employee.

j) Objective of Post-orientation:

1. The post-orientation objective is to obtain from the
employee the greatest amount of information possible. This begins
immediately after his return. You do not expect an employee who
just returned from a mission to come to you and provide you a
complete report, automatically responding to each one of his
requirements. You must work under the concept that you trained the
employee, prepared him for the mission or oriented him about what
he must look for, assuring him thus that the only pertinent and
useful information is produced, within the framework of the
requirement. In the post-orientation, in addition to the task of
obtaining information, you must also be interested in the morale
and personal problems of the employee. consequently, it is your
duty as agent not only to extract useful information from the
employee when he returns from a mission, but to do it in such a way
that he wishes to remain on the job and progress in the performance
of his duties.

2. In the post-orientation sequence, everything must be
carefully planned. Like in other meetings with the employee, the
agent must be in complete control.

a. Establish harmony:
The is confronted with a person who has been
carrying out a task that demands initiative, ingenuity and exposure
to danger. The employee could be nervous, tired or afraid from
this, and hopes for the proper interest for his physical welfare
and appreciation for having completed his mission, but he must
maintain at all times the proper relation between the employer and

b. Post-orientation:

With the aid of the post-orientation plan and
various post-orientation aids, the agent makes every effort to
obtain all the information with respect to the mission. The
employee must narrate the mission from the time of departure until
his return. The agent will formulate pertinent questions in order
to assure a complete and precise information. The sketches, the
maps, the photographs, etc., will identify the area with precision
and will assure a complete report in response to his requirements.
if the employee met physical or equipment elements, he will be



interrogated about the location and circumstances Of the

A special effort must be made to ask the employee about his
ariences in the area in regards to fictitious identity and the
documents he carried. When the time and security allow
arrangements must be made as soon as possible for an additional
post-orientation after a tentative evaluation in order to allow
clarification, explanation or verification of the information
provided during the initial post-orientation.

c. Tentative evaluation:

The agent must study the employee's conduct,
manner of speaking, and make a comparison between the known
information and the version of the employee in order to make a
tentative evaluation of the employees veracity and of his

d. Payment:

The employee is paid for his services and his
expenses. Operation expenses are paid in full. Bonus and other
special payments are paid according to plans that you may have
previously decided.

e. Final harmony:

The agent must concentrate in guaranteeing that
future relations with the employee will be harmonious. The
employee must feel that his welfare and his personal problems are
taken into consideration: If arrangements must be made for future
meetings, a date, time and place must be established that is
acceptable to both. It must be remembered that his personal safety
is necessary.

f. Failure of the mission:

Until now we have based our explanation on the
supposition that the mission has been successful. In the event the
employee indicates that he was not able to obtain the information
for which the mission was undertook, it is not expected that the.
agent bounces with happiness, but he should not be critical of the
employee until he knows all the facts. It could very well be that
the reasons for the :failure of the mission were not due to
employee's inefficiency and could prove to be of value for future
operations. Whatever the causes of the failure may be, a
corrective action must be taken.

This has been a type of post-orientation. it cannot be
followed exactly because each post-orientation is carried out
according to type of mission and type of employee.




In order to be successful the agent must plan, train and use his
employees effectively. Each employee must know what he is looking
for, how to look for it and, finally, how to supply the information
once it has been obtained. The agent must keep in mind the reasons
for which the employee was contracted and use him for that purpose.
The agent must be concerned for the safety of the employee but
above all must keep in mind the importance of the mission. He must
constantly emphasize the security to the employee. Before
assigning tasks to the employee, the agent must prepare him and use
plans of the place, timetables and auxiliary means for the
orientation. When he actually assigns a mission to the employee,
there are three steps to approach a field: The orientation
preparation, orientation and post-orientation. These are of vital
importance to the employee as wall as for the agent because if any
of the three is not perfect, the mission and at the same time the
employee will be compromised. Each employee is a considerable
investment of time, money and effort. Do not use them badly, but
remember that they are to produce information for you, and it is
your job to see that they do so. The orientation and post-
orientation determine in great part the value and punctuality of
the information which the employee will obtain for you.